Working principle of rail fasteners and rail sleeper
Elastic rail clip and spike
One common elastic rail fastener part is called E clip. It fastens steel rail to tie plate to prevent unexpected monvement while train is passing. Force generated by elastic rail clip is very essencial on controlling force formed by steel rail temperature change and dynamic force. To keep steel rail on rail tie plate which is attached to rail sleeper, means to keep steel rail from broken and derailments. Rail spike(dog spike, screw spike) and rail anchors are always working together to control these force.
Rail Sleeper Classification by Shapes:
Railroad tie which is also named railway sleeper, is an important part lays under 2 steel rails and maintains its gauge, steel rails are fastend by railway fasteners so as to prevent steel track from moving and sliding, the ability to avoid sliding is one key characteristc of railway sleeper, with good quality railway sleepers used,there will be less maintenance work, low replacement frequency of rail sleeper.
Traditional rail sleeper can be classified by shape as 2 types-mono and bi-block, mono railway sleeper is made in one long cuboid shape while bi-block rail sleeper is made with 2 blocks with steel structure as the connection of them. Steel structure is a steel tie rod or other steel profile for keeping gauge.Compared with mono rail sleeper, bi-block rail sleeper has the advantage of light weight and greater resistance to lateral actions. As steel is lighter than concrete,concrete bi-block rail sleeper is easier to transport than mono railway sleeper.
Railway sleeper made of wood need to be treated and preserved in special method to prevent it from rotting, one high quality major material for wood railway sleeper is oak, which is a type of hardwood. Well treated wood railway sleeper will last for decades, with suitable treatment of wood oil, it will last much longer. All railway sleepers shall have no surface defects, air holes.
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